There are many species of plants & animals in this area. And there are plenty of mangroves include species such as Lumnitzera racemosa (Beriya), Lumnitzera littorea (Rathamilla), Excoecaria agallocha (Thelakiriya), Acrosticum aureum (Karankoku), Bruguiera gymnorhiza (Malkadol), Rhizophora apiculata (Elakadol) & Sonneratia caseolaris (Kirala). A few endemic plant species such as Dillenia retusa (Godapara), Wormia triquetra (Diyapara), Osbeckia octandra (Bowitiya), Artocarpus nobilis (Waldel), Phoenix zeylanica (Indi) & Mesua nagassarium (Na) can be seen from there.
60 species of birds belonging to 32 families were recorded in the estuary and associated islands. Family Muscicapidae comprised 10% (6 species) of the total. All other families are represented with a lesser percentage of species. Most families (53.13%) are represented with only one species. Of all the species of birds recorded in this area, 51 (85%) of total are resident where as 9 (15%) are migratory type. Any single island contained less than 60% of all land bird species. The highest number of species (31) is recorded in Meraladuwa, Erawanaduwa harbored the least number which is only 4 species. The striated herons are frequently seen on the kraals (Jakotu). With reference to avifauna, Maduganga estuary offers a diverse habitat for observation of large number oflow land bird species.
The large number of fresh water canals & the dense mangrove vegetation provided an ideal refuge for many fish varieties. 28 fish species are reported among which 7 species are considered rare. The typical fresh water fishes such as Anabas testudineus, Puntius vittatus (Olive Barb), Saratheradon mossambicus (Tilapia), Rasbora dananiconius (Striped Rasbora) can be found closed to streamlets in the upper reaches of the estuary. Heteropneustes fossilis (Stinging catfish) is frequently observed. The endemic species Clarias brachysoma (Walking Catfish) is often observed after heavy rains when this species migrates along the fresh water canals. In the open brackish to saline waters, Etroplus suratensis (Pearl Spot) & Saratherodon mossambicus are very common and both are commercially exploited. Closer to the estuary mouth, large numbers of Monodactylus argenteus (Mono) & the red Scatophagus argus (Spotted Butter fish) are observed. Both varieties are exploited as ornamental species for export.

Several varieties of penaeid prawns are presented in Maduganga. The Randombe Lake area has the very characteristic feature of having large population of the Jelly fish Aurelia sp. There are 8 amphibian species among which are 1 Bufonidae, 1 Microhylidae, 4 Ranidaes and 1 Racophoridae.

26 reptilian species including 13 species of snakes and 13 species of tetrapod are reported. There are the endemic species include Hemidactylus depressus (Jungle Gacko), Otocryptis wiegmanni (Earless Lizard). The Python molurus (Python), Sri Lanka’s largest snake is recorded from some uninhabited islands such as Naiduwa.

There are Prionaiiurus viverrinus (Fishing Cat), Lutra lutra (Otter), Canis aureus (Common Jackal), Feroculus feroculus (Hog Deer) some of the mammals from 18 mammal species are recorded in Maduganga area.

*information picked by the report of the wetland conservation project of Sri Lanka. This report was created before the TSUNAMI. Therefore there can be some detail with incorrect form due to the TSUNAMI effect.
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